18. Inventories

(€ million)At December 31, 2013At December 31, 2012
Raw materials, supplies and finished goods5,4454,821
Gross amount due from customers for contract works1922
Total Inventories5,4644,843

At December 31, 2013, Inventories include assets which are no longer subject to operating lease arrangements or buy-back commitments and are held for sale for €147 million (€170 million at December 31, 2012). Excluding this item, Inventories increased by €644 million in 2013.

At December 31, 2013, Inventories include those measured at net realizable value (estimated selling price less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale) amounting to €1,279 million (€1,104 million at December 31, 2012).

The amount of inventory write-downs recognized as an expense during 2013 is €44 million (€61 million in 2012).

Amounts recognized as income from the reversal of write-downs on items sold during the year were not significant.

There were no inventories pledged as security at December 31, 2013 and 2012.